Germany's coastline stretches along the North and Baltic Seas, offering a unique climate that differs from the rest of the country. The coastline is characterized by a maritime climate that is influenced by the oceanic climate, resulting in milder temperatures, high humidity, and frequent rainfall throughout the year.
The North Sea coast is located in the northernmost part of Germany and is known for its relatively mild temperatures, with an average temperature of 20°C (68°F) during the summer months and 5°C (41°F) during the winter. The warm Gulf Stream currents that flow into the North Sea contribute to its mild climate, and as a result, the area experiences less snowfall compared to other parts of the country. However, the region is known for its frequent storms and strong winds, which can reach up to 100 km/h (62 mph) during the winter months.
On the other hand, the Baltic Sea coast, which is located in the northeastern part of the country, experiences cooler temperatures compared to the North Sea coast. The average temperature during the summer months is 15°C (59°F), and during the winter months, it can drop to as low as -2°C (28°F). The area also experiences more snowfall during the winter months, which can create a beautiful winter wonderland.
Both coastlines are characterized by high humidity, which is caused by the proximity to the ocean. The humidity is further amplified by the frequent rainfall, which can occur throughout the year. The North Sea coast receives an average of 800 mm (31 in) of rainfall per year, while the Baltic Sea coast receives an average of 500-600 mm (20-24 in) per year. The ocean currents also play a significant role in shaping the climate of Germany's coastline. The warm Gulf Stream currents that flow into the North Sea help to keep the area relatively warm, while the colder currents that flow into the Baltic Sea contribute to its cooler climate.
One factor that affects the climate of the coastline is the coastal topography. The North Sea coast is characterized by sandy beaches and dunes, while the Baltic Sea coast is dominated by cliffs and rocky shores. The sandy beaches and dunes of the North Sea coast absorb more heat from the sun, which can make the area feel warmer during the day. On the other hand, the rocky shores of the Baltic Sea coast can be cooler, as they reflect more of the sun's rays. Another factor that influences the climate of the coastline is the presence of islands. Germany's North Sea coast is home to several islands, including Sylt, Föhr, and Amrum. These islands are popular tourist destinations and offer a unique climate compared to the mainland. Due to their isolated location, the islands experience less wind and rainfall, resulting in a milder and more pleasant climate. The Baltic Sea coast also has several islands, including Rügen and Usedom, which are popular tourist destinations in the summer months. The climate of the coastline also affects the local flora and fauna. The high humidity and frequent rainfall support the growth of a variety of plants, including salt-tolerant species such as sea grass and salt marsh plants. The coastal waters of the North and Baltic Seas are also rich in marine life, including fish, seals, and birds.