962 German king Otto I. becomes Roman Emperor. It marks the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nations.

The Golden Bull of Emperor Charles IV is issued. It serves as a constitution for the Holy Roman Empire for the next 400 years. Its name derived from Latin and refers to an authentication with a golden seal.


The Hanseatic League is formally founded. The German town of Lübeck is the center of the trade league.

1438 The election of Albert I marks the beginning of the Habsburg dynasty.
1455 The printing press is introduced by Johannes Gutenberg. He prints the Gutenberg Bible in Mainz.
1555 The peace of Augsburg is signed, the first documented example of religious freedom in Europe.

1618 -


The Thirty Years War takes place. In the beginning it is an armed conflict between Catholics and Protestants. Later, it is also a war between the houses of Habsburg and Bourbon. The war is fought across Central Europe. Germany is ravaged to a high degree.
1648 The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War which leaves German speaking Europe divided into hundreds of states.
 1701  The Kingdom of Prussia is formed.


The Seven Years War takes place, a war that also spreads to North America and became known as the French and Indian War in the New World.

Prussia is able to enlarge its territory due to their victory against Silesia.


The ideas of French Revolution impact Germany.


The Napoleonic Wars alter the course of history for large parts of Europe.


Prussia loses against Napoleon in the battle of Jena and Auerstedt on October 14.

Napoleon's armies impose French rule over German soil.


Napoleon is defeated at the Battle of Leipzig.


At the Congress of Vienna the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) is formed out of 35 princely states and 4 cities. The strongest state of the German Confederation is Prussia.


On October 18, various students from German universities celebrate the tercentenary of Martin Luther's Reformation and the fourth anniversary of the Battle of Leipzig that freed Germany from Napoleon. They promoted a unified German state at the Wartburg festival.


The black, red, and golden banner is raised for the very first time at The Hambach Festival. The festival reflected growing unrest in the face of political censorship. It marks the turning point for the German democracy movement and emphasizes the idea of German unity.


Revolutionary ideas across Europe of more political freedom also  transform into an open revolution in many parts of the German Confederation. In Frankfurt, the first elected parliament for all of Germany convenes at St. Paul's Church. The first German Reich lasts only for a short period of time. The revolution failed and some liberals were forced into exile to escape persecution. They became known as the Forty-Eighters in the United States.


First War of German Unification: Prussia and Austria fight against Denmark.

After Denmark's defeat, Prussia receives the state of Schleswig and Austria the state of Holstein.


Second War of German Unification: The Austro-Prussia War results in the dissolution of the German Confederation. The German states can now unite without Prussia's rival Austria.


Twenty-two states of northern Germany form the North German Confederation. It is the first true unified German state.


Third War of German Unification: The North German Confederation fights victoriously against France.


The German Reich is founded on January 18, 1871. It has changed its political system several times and lasted until 1945.


The Reichswehr is established.


Germany joins World War I after its ally Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. The Treaty of Versailles leaves the new formed Weimar Republic with debts.


The Global Depression hits Germany hard.


Seizure of power: The National Socialists transform Germany.


The Reichswehr becomes the Wehrmacht.

Hitler's Proclamation of Germany's military sovereignty on March 16. The proclamation declares the Treaty of Versailles null and void due to the victorious powers' violation of the contract.


World War II: Invasion of Poland triggers another World War.


The Berlin Declaration officially marks the end of the German Reich (1871 - 1945).


The Nuermberg war crime trials tries to come to terms with the past.


The Berlin Blockade begins. The allies organize an airlift to supply West-Berlin.


The German Democratic Republic in the East and the Federal Republic of Germany in the West are founded. Konrad Adenauer becomes the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany.


Ratification of the German Basic Law (Grundgesetz).


The Bundeswehr, Germany's new army is established on November, 12. 

West Germany joins the Nato.

East Germany joins the Warsaw Pact.


The Berlin Wall is built. It separates families. friends, and a nation.


West and East Germany agree that they acknowledge each other as sovereign states and sign a declaration (basic treaty). They promise to take a pass on using military force against each other.


"Bloody Sport": The Olympic Games are staged in Munich. Eight members of the terror organization "Black September" storm the Israeli accommodation and take nine hostages. The rescue mission fails, and the hostages lose their lives. This evil and inhuman act overshadow the international competition of peace.


West and East Germany join the United Nations.


German Reunification.

The Bundeswehr takes over the GDR's National People's Army.

Two Plus Four Agreement: Germany regains its full sovereignty.